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Abstract: Presented at the American Public Health Association,
November 2002, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Title: Impact of the health status of African-American men on African-American women and children

Men as a group are less likely to utilize the health care system than women, a factor that accounts in part for their lower average life expectancy. American men are less likely to carry
health insurance, less likely to have seen a physician in the previous year, and more likely to delay seeking healthcare than American women. Health care utilization rates appear poorest among African-American and Latino men. The health status of American men is often narrowly perceived as an issue limited to the referenced group. However, health problems affecting men may have a profound impact on women and children with regard to health and disease,
economic status, quality of life, and family stability. Men's health issues may affect women and children directly and/or indirectly through reduction or loss of income, medical expenses, and disruption of family relationships. Paternal health issues, including military and occupational chemical exposures, have been associated with specific birth defects in children.

The likely association between male underutilization of health care services and cultural / attitudinal factors, as well as the likely association between male health and the health status of women and children warrant increased attention by health care professionals.

Men may have more stoic attitudes towards pain and fear by virtue of gender role training (stoic attitudes are often culturally prized among males) and work role training (men are disproportionately represented in physical labor jobs which necessitate tolerance for
discomfort). In addition, female-targeted medical specialties such as OB/GYN and women's health may help to habituate women towards regular contact with physicians early in life. The lack of comparable male-targeted specialties and health care programs may hinder men's ability to actively participate in the health care system. These cultural and attitudinal factors may lead to poorer health outcomes by reducing adaptive responses to pain, injury and
fear, such as avoidance of painful / dangerous circumstances or seeking health care when ill.

Addressing the health of males as an issue affecting the broader community could potentially lead to improved health outcomes for the nation as a whole. Studies that measure gender-associated stoic attitudes towards pain, responsiveness to fear, and ability to identify with participation in the health care system are warranted. Appropriate measures of association could then delineate the relationship between these variables and health care utilization rates / health outcomes.

Abstract: Presented at the American Public Health Association,
November 2003 San Francisco California


TITLE: Characteristics of Effective Health Outreach to African-American Men, a Medically Underserved Population

African-American men are well known to underutilize the health care system relative to other demographic groups. African-American men are especially unlikely to carry health insurance or to have seen a physician / have a physical examination in the past year. Distrust of the health care system, deeply ingrained culturally based stoic attitudes towards pain, and fatalistic attitudes may make African-American men an especially difficult group to engage in
preventive health care.

In Atlanta Georgia, Men's Health Day (1999) and the HIM Summit (2002) were public well-attended health screenings with substantial African-American male participation. Screenings included blood pressure, PSA testing, nutrition, cardiovascular health, blood glucose screenings, exercise, dental health and healthy lifestyles instruction.

Factors contributing to the surprisingly high participation of African-American men included involving the entire family to bring men in / help them understand health regimens (such as taking medications properly); taking time to explain and promote understanding of disease processes and management; emphasizing the person as a whole, “not just a prostate”; addressing performance issues (including sexual performance); providing well-prepared
samples of healthy foods both as reward and example that eating well need not sacrifice taste; and publicizing health screenings through multiple and diverse media venues, including radio, television, and African-American churches.

Traditional approaches have failed to engage and/or retain African-American males in the health care system. Studies that measure the effectiveness of alternative approaches are warranted. Appropriate measures of association could then delineate the relationship between these methodologies and health care utilization rates / health outcomes.

At the conclusion of the session, the participant (learner) in the session will be able to:

  1. Recognize disparities in health care utilization rates based
    upon race and gender.
  2. Identify at least three barriers to the participation of African-American males in the health care system.
  3. Identify at least three approaches that could potentially
    facilitate the engagement and retention of African American men in
    the health care system.

Author(s): Jean Bonhomme M.D., M.P.H. & Ronald Braithwaite, Ph.D.
Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education
Emory University School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road,
Atlanta, GA 30322 Phone: (404) 524-7237
email: jbonhom@sph.emory.edu


1
Photo Gallery... (LR) Governor Roy Barnes, Tracie Snitker (Director, Public
Affairs, MHN), and Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPD (MHN Board of Directors and
founder, National Black Men's Health Network...
http://www.menshealthnetwork.org/photos/photo15.html
2
Spokespersons - December 2003 ... Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH National Black Men's Health
Network (founder) Emory University, Grace Crum Rollins School of Public Health...
http://www.menshealthnetwork.org/spokespersons.html
3
The Endangered Species - Men? ... (why did) the increase in male life
expectancy fail to keep pace with improvements in women's life expectancy,"
Emory University researcher Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, tells ...
http://www.menstuff.org/issues/byissue/endangeredspecies.html
4
Mike Ditka Tackles Men's Health Issues ... (SOURCES: Mike Ditka, former NFL player,
coach, spokesman, Tackling Men's Health campaign; Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, Rollins
School of Public Health...
http://www.healthfinder.gov/news/newsstory.asp?docID=515704
5
Men's Sexual Health-Mike Ditka Tackles Men's Health Issues
SOURCES: Mike Ditka, former NFL player, coach, spokesman, Tackling
Men's Health campaign; Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, Rollins School
of Public Health...
http://www.menssexhealth.com/ms/news/515704/main.html
6
Welcome to Physician's Weekly! - Free Medical News Service: New
...... JEAN BONHOMME, MD, MPH. Board of Directors, Men's Health Network
Founder, National Black Men's Health Network. ...
http://www.physiciansweekly.com/index.asp?issueid=19
7
jmhg - THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON MEN'S HEALTH & GENDER
... MD Adelaide, Australia Wendy Atkin, PhD London, UK Josien
Bensing, PhD Utrecht, Netherlands Michael Boland, MD Dublin, Ireland Jean
Bonhomme, MD Alanta, GA ...
http://www.ismh.org/jmhg/english/board_engl.htm
8
Why Guys Die Sooner
... culture prizes stoicism and courage among men, and teaches men
to be somewhat unresponsive to their own physical pain," says Jean
Bonhomme, MD ...
http://my.webmd.com/content/article/12/1685_52232
9
Press Conference
... This is a benefit not only to men but to their families that
love them," said Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, Men's Health Network. Copyright ...
http://www.menshealthoffice.info/press.htm
10
About OMH ... Randy "Duke" Cunningham looks on. Rep. Jim McDermott, MD, and
Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, share a moment. Warren Greene of Men's Health
magazine meets Rep. ...
http://www.menshealthoffice.info/photos.htm
11
Study says men take better care of cars than themselves
... ping and they bring their car to a mechanic, but they don't
listen when their body tells them it may be time to see a doctor," said Jean
Bonhomme, MD, MPH ...
http://www.theacorn.com/news/2004/0624/Health_and_Wellness/058.html
12
ADVANCE for Respiratory Care Practitioners | Editorial
... As Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, put it: When a boy is 8 years old and
he skins his knee, he is told, "boys don't cry." When he's 15 years old
and gets hurt playing ...
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13
AMNews: May 24/31, 2004. 'Network for men' sends patients to the ...
... If you set it every year [for an exam], you're going to do it at
regular intervals, and that's the most important thing," said Jean
Bonhomme, MD, MPH ...
http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2004/05/24/hlsc0524.htm
14
First study of Viagra(R) in black men demonstrates treatment as ...
... such conditions, it is especially important to screen and treat
black men who are experiencing erection problems," said Jean Bonhomme, MD ...
http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/2002/D/20024693.html
15
MenAlive!: Irritable Male Syndrome - What Are They Saying?
... ways. Jean Bonhomme MD, MPH, President, National Black Men's
Health Network and Board of Advisors, Men's Health Network. Jed Diamond ...
http://www.menalive.com/ims-say.htm
16
MHN Announces Prostatitis Partnership
... cancer," said Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, and Board Member of the
Men's Health Network. "This fear can be paralyzing and in some cases may
prevent men. ...
http://www.menshealthweek.org/old-site/pr05.htm
17
HSIPC: Head Start Bulletin-Father Involvement - Building Strong ...
... behavior patterns in the work and personal lives of men continue
to contribute to the growing crisis in men's health," said Jean
Bonhomme, MD, MPH and ...
http://www.headstartinfo.org/publications/hsbulletin77/hsb77_26.htm
18
The Men in Your Life - Hunterdon Healthcare System
... Men want to be better men," explains Jean Bonhomme, MD,
spokesman for the Men's Health Network and president of the National Black Men's
Health Network. ...
http://www.hunterdonhealthcare.org/WebMD/Conditions/Womens_Health/Men
_In_Your_Life.asp
19
Session: Access and Quality Of Health Care: International Models ...
... African American attitudes towards the health care system
and disparities in health care utilization Jean JE Bonhomme, MD, MPH,
Ronald Braithwaite, PhD. ...
http://apha.confex.com/apha/129am/techprogram/session_5624.htm
20
Health Quote
... - Dr. Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, founder of the National Black
Men's Health Network and on the Board of Directors of Men's Health Network. ...
http://www.menshealthweek.org/newsletter/content/2003/10/27/quote.htm
21
Prevention case management: Cumulative lessons learned from the ...
... Jean JE Bonhomme, MD, MPH, Behavioral Sciences and Health
Education Department, Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University,
3915 Cascade Road, Suite ...
http://apha.confex.com/apha/132am/techprogram/paper_84371.htm
22
Prostatitis: Most Americans Uninformed About Common Prostate ...
... Men who begin experiencing prostate problems often fear the
worst - prostate cancer," said Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, Men's Health Network ...
http://www.obgyn.net/newsrx/general_health-Prostatitis-20000925-20.asp
23
glennsacks.com | Men's 'Silent Health Crisis' Cries Out for ...
... Jean Bonhomme, an Atlanta physician and founder of the National
Black Men's Health ...
http://www.glennsacks.com/mens_silent_health.htm
24
More Time Together/replies/book - 4/5/00
... Scott Stanley _________________ Food for thought: Dr. Jean
Bonhomme, Men's Health Network(MHN) Board member and founder of the Black
Men's Health Network ...
http://listarchives.his.com/smartmarriages/smartmarriages.0004/msg00003.html
25
AMNews: June 17, 2002. Many men exhibit health care avoidance ...
... The sexes are taught to deal very differently with pain and
fear," said Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, a board member of the Men's Health Network ...
http://www.amednews.com/2002/hll20617
26

AMNews: April 10, 2000. Men avoid physician visits, often don't ...
... When a boy at age 8 scrapes his knee, he's told 'big boys don't
cry,' " said Jean Bonhomme, MD, MPH, a public health physician and president
of the National Black Men's Health Network...
http://www.amednews.com/2000/hll10410

27
Simonsays.com > SimonSays > From Boys to Men: A Woman's Guide to ...
... pronounced. Jean Bonhomme, MD, president of the National Black
Men's Health Network, calls this trait pathological stoicism. "African ...
http://www.simonsays.com/content/content.cfm?sid=33&pid=415353&
agid=2&aid=307343
28
Closing the Gap
... white man can only imagine it." As stated by Dr. Jean Bonhomme,
"It's ... On Tuesday, September 16, 2003, Secretary Rhonda Medows, MD,
Agency for Health Care ...
http://www.doh.state.fl.us/equopp/ctg/ClosingtheGapNewsletter_Volume
_1_Issue_3.pdf
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http://www.menalive.com/ims-say.htm
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http://www.webmd.com/content/Article/104/107378.htm?pagenumber=5
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http://www.webmd.com/content/article/98/104801.htm
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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1571891306001105
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